Solar panels are typically tested for efficiency by examining their output power under different conditions, which may include variable levels of light and heat. A multimeter is typically used to measure and test the output, which is compared to the input to calculate the efficiency.
Energy generated by a solar panel is calculated by multiplying the power of sunlight striking the surface of the panel (Watts [W]) by the surface area of the panel (m^2).
This can be obtained by placing a light meter at a particular angle relative to direct sunlight striking the surface. The amount of heat received from sunlight will be dependent on weather conditions and time of day, making this value difficult to obtain accurately unless measured over long periods.
The output is measured in Watts (W) and does not account for energy lost in connecting cables or converting from voltage to amperes (usually done using an ammeter).
Solar panels can be tested for efficiency in a number of ways. One way to test the solar panel is to measure the output power from the system under different temperatures or light levels.
Another way is to use a solar simulator (sunlight simulator) in order to simulate sunlight or constant sunlight at various hours of day, week, month and year.
A third method is with an equation called PV watts calculation: P= I* V* Cos(δ). The equation assumes a solar panel has a certain voltage. This voltage can be measured anywhere from the module, back of the module, at the inverter, or at the combiner box if available. The cosine of 90 degrees is equal to 1. If in doubt, use 1.
Other methods include measuring what voltages are seen on each individual module under various light levels and temperatures and calculating from that information (or measuring energy production with an EKM PPS), but this would be too time-consuming to perform every day to ensure efficiency during operating hours as opposed to other methods that can measure efficiency without human interference.
RVs and most camping adventure setups will typically need more than one solar panel to charge their batteries and power their devices.
Finding the efficiency of a solar panel is relatively straightforward with most multimeters, as long as the voltage is found, which can be done by using a voltmeter.
The efficiency is calculated by dividing the output power from the multimeter into the input power from the solar cells. This includes both losses on the panel itself (due to heating) and losses in the wiring/cables leading away from it to charge devices.
A small amount of light and heat (not enough to charge any of the devices or affect battery life or storage capacity) is present on all solar panels, even when not charging anything directly connected to them.
Sunlight (light) on the surface of the solar panel results in energy being converted (converted) to electrical power by converting one form of energy into another.
Two examples are converting heat to light-energy and converting chemical energy to electrical power.
The sunlight also causes the panels to be heated up and that heat is converted to electricity.
How do I know if my solar panels are working?
- What is the weather like? Is it cloudy or rainy? If so, it will impact the output.
- Am I already charging my devices? If so, the power being generated from the panels is being used up by your cell phone, tablet, laptop or other device.
- Do I have a solar meter? A multimeter can be used to measure voltage and amperage of the output from the panel. The wattage is found by multiplying the voltage into the amperage. It will not measure actual energy production as this requires a watt-hour meter (or EKM PPS).
- Check your inverter. Does it output the correct power (watts) for your solar panels?
- Check your combiner box. Is there an error/glitch on your combiner box, battery, or other devices that it’s feeding into that is causing the power to be lost?